International Journal of Farmacia International Journal of Farmacia

ISSN: 2455-8109

Search form

Articles

  1. Astashine capsules: an excellent choice for skin aging defenceDownload Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, Jyothika Vanamali, G.Santosh Kumar, C.J. Sampath Kumar

    Abstract

    close

    Excessive exposure of unprotected skin to sunlight results in sunburn and can also lead to photo-induced oxidation, inflammation, immunosuppression, aging and even carcinogenesis of skin cells. Pre-clinical studies shows that typical dietary antioxidant, could reduce such damages. Astaxanthin is believed to protect the skin against UV-light photo-oxidation and the in vitro protective effect of astaxanthin against UV-induced photooxidation was stronger when compared with β-carotene and lutein. These findings suggest that astaxanthin has an excellent potential as an oral sun-protectant. Although diet supplementation with β-carotene or astaxanthin has demonstrated benefits in other types of cancer, the animal or clinical studies with these two compounds are inconclusive when it comes to skin cancer. More studies are needed to better understand the possible interactions between various antioxidants and their potential prooxidative role, to determine under which conditions supplementation with carotenoids such as astaxanthin can help reduce skin carcinogenesis.

  2. Development and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of Sumatriptan SuccinateDownload Article

    Juveriya Fatima, Pamu Sandhya

    Abstract

    close

    Sumatriptan is a medication used for the treatment of migrane headaches. It is a synthetic drug belonging to the triptan class. Structurally, it is an analog of the naturally occurring neuro-active alkaloids dimethyl tryptamine (DMT), bufotenine, and 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine, with an N-methyl sulfonamidomethyl- group at position C-5 on the indole ring. Various approaches have been developed to retain the dosage form in the stomach. Gastric floating drug delivery systems offer numerous advantages over other gastric retention systems. The GFDDS of sumatriptan succinate were developed in the form of tablets comprising of an effervescent agent. The prepared mini tablets were subjected to pre and post compressional parameters and the values were within the prescribed limits. The drug- excipient compatibility studies were performed using FTIR techniques. The effect of different formulation parameters such as concentrations of effervescent agent on floating properties and drug release kinetics were studied and the formulations were optimized.  The concentration of the effervescent agent greatly influenced the floating lag time. From the results it can be concluded that F11 with HPMC K100M, and sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent provides the 99.92 % of drug release up to 12hours. By increasing the concentration of the polymer, decreased dissolution rates were obtained for the all the polymers. The slow rate of polymer hydration and the presence of effervescent agent caused a burst release initially. Hence, all the GFDDS were formulated without addition of the loading dose. Although the release rate mainly depended on the proportion of the polymer, the entrapped gas within the hydrogel also influenced the rate of drug release from the GFDDS. By increasing the proportion of the effervescent agent, the porosity produced by the entrapped gas increased and dissolution rate was increased.

  3. Method development and validation for the estimation of Allopurinol and alpha lipoic acid by RP-HPLC methodDownload Article

    Sayeeda tabasum, Matta. Vidyasagar

    Abstract

    close

    A Simple, specific and sensitive an isocratic Estimation by RP-HPLC analytical Method were developed and validated for the quantification allopurinol and alpha lipoic acid. Quantification was achieved by by using the mobile phase (Phosphate buffer Ph3.5: Acetonitrile) in the ratio of 55:45. Inertsil ODS, C-18,250×4.6mm ID, 5µm Particle size was used as stationary phase. The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min. Measurements were made at a wavelength of 230nm. The average retention times for Allopurinol and alpha Lipoic acid was found to be 2.457 & 6.320 min. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay methods were found to be linear from 60-140µg/ml & 60-140 µg/ml for Allopurinol and alpha Lipoic acid respectively. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed methods were successfully applied to estimate the amount of Allopurinol and alpha Lipoic acid. 

  4. Formulation and evaluation of Repaglinide biphasic mini tabletsDownload Article

    Noureen Naaz, Pamu Sandhya

    Abstract

    close

    Repaglinide is an anti-diabetic drug   used extensively in the treatment of diabetes type II. The present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate biphasic floating mini tablets of Repaglinide. These mini tablets were encapsulated in a capsule. Immediate release   mini tablet (IRMT) were manufactured by direct compression using various superdisintegrating agents, each mini tablet containing 2mg   Repaglinide. Sustained release mini tablet (SRMT) were formulated using various polymers, each mini tablet containing 4mg Repaglinide. The prepared mini tablets were subjected to pre and post compressional parameters and the values were within the prescribed limits. The drug- excipient compatibility studies were performed using FTIR techniques. The invitro performance  showed the desired biphasic behavior with 99.7% drug release within 15 mins using SSG as superdisintegrating agent in IRMT and combination of HPMC K100M and Ethyl cellulose in SRMT  was found to be suitable approach to release the drug over 10 hr time period. Capsules were filled with individual mini tablets to deliver 6mg of Repaglinide designed to provide a multi particulate delivery of drug as immediate and sustained dissolution release profiles.

  5. Method development and validation for the estimation of Atorvastatin, Ezitimibe and Fenofibrate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms by RP-HPLC methodDownload Article

    Asfiya Abbas, Varaprasad

    Abstract

    close

    A Simple, specific and  sensitive an isocratic Estimation by RP-HPLC analytical Method were developed and validated for the quantification Atorvastatin, Ezitimibe and fenofibrate in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Quantification was achieved by using the mobile phase (A mixture of 80 volumes of Methanol: 10 volumes of Acetonitrile and 10 volumes of Water.). Inertsil ODS 3V column (250×4.6mm× 5µ) was used as stationary phase. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Measurements were made at a wavelength of 256nm. The average retention times for about 2.230min for Atorvastatin, 3.840 for Ezitimibe and 5.937min for Fenofibrate.and Internal standard was found to be 4.37& 6.70 min. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay methods were found to be linear from 50-150µg/ml. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed methods were successfully applied to estimate the amount of Atorvastatin, Ezitimibe and fenofibrate

  6. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of fast melting tablets of FexofenadineDownload Article

    Yasmeen, Pamu Sandhya, M.Sunitha

    Abstract

    close

    Fexofenadine Hydrochloride is an antihistamine drug used in the treatment of hay fever and similar allergy symptoms. It does not readily pass through the blood-brain barrier and causes less drowsiness than first generation histamine-receptor antagonists. Fourteen batches of rapid dispersible tablets of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride were prepared using Cross Povidone, Cross carmellose Sodium and Sodium Starch Glycolate as Superdisintegrants in different concentrations and in different combinations by Direct Compression method. Preformulation studies of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride were performed, from the FT-IR; the interference was verified and found that Fexofenadine Hydrochloride did not interfere with the polymers used. Fexofenadine Hydrochloride formulated as Rapid Dispersible Tablets gives best results. Also negligible side effects makes it superior and effective candidate for pediatric, geriatric, bedridden and psychotic patients.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of Lisinopril floating tabletsDownload Article

    Fareeaa Ashar, M. Suresh babu

    Abstract

    close

    The floating drug delivery system is site-specific and allows the drug to remain in the stomach for a prolonged period of time so that it can be released in a controlled manner in gastrointestinal tract. The model drug is Lisinopril which has narrow absorption window, only 25% of the drug is absorbed and the remaining drug is excreted unchanged in urine. By increasing the gastric residence time of the  lisinopril, the frequency of administration and drug wastage can be reduced The present study was carried out to develop a floating drug delivery system using gum karaya, chitosan and  carrageenan as release controlling polymers to prolong the residence time of the model drug lisinopril in the stomach. The floating ability of gum karaya, chitosan and carrageenan was increased by addition of NaHCO3 as a gas-generating agent. The floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for pre compression and post compression studies. The lisinopril release through 20% gum karaya and 20% carrageenan was delayed by 12 hours when compared to a preparation available on the market which released the complete drug in 0.5 hours. The drug release study of lisinopril from the formulation follows zero order kinetics using a diffusion controlled mechanism. The results from the present study revealed that gum karaya and carrageenans provides the required delay in the release of drug and hence are ideal for the formulation of floating drug delivery systems. 

  8. Stability indicating analytical method development and validation for estimation of Ceftazidime and Avibactam in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form using RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Syeda Saniya Fatima, R. Vani

    Abstract

    close

    A new simple, rapid, specific, accurate and precise stability indicatind RP-HPLC method has been developed for the estimation of Ceftazidime and Avibactam in bulk & pharmaceutical dosage form. From UV spectrophotometric method selected wavelength for estimation of drugs were 231 nm as isobestic point and 256 nm, 210 nm as λ max of CAZ and AVY respectively by using methanol as a solvent. RP-HPLC method was developed by using Hypersil ODS (150×4.6mm) 5µ. The samples were analyzed by using mixed phosphate buffer (PH adjusted to 4 using orthophosphoric acid): Acetonitrile (60:40 % v/v) as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and detection wavelength is 231 nm. Both the drugs were eluted within 5 minutes and gave sharp peaks with high theoretical plate count and low tailing factor. The retention time for Ceftazidime and Avibactam was found to be 2.523 and 4.410 min respectively. Calibration curve was linear with correlation coefiicient of 0.996 and 0.999 over a concentration range of 240-560 µg/ml and 60-120 µg/ml for Ceftazidime and Avibactam respectively. The percent recovery was 100.10 and 99.75 for Ceftazidime and Avibactam respectively indicating accuracy and reliability of the method. Forced degradation studies were carried out and drug peaks were well resolved without any significant degradation products when subjected to stress conditions. So the developed stability indicating method could be utilized for routine analysis of Ceftazidime and Avibactam in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

  9. Stability indicating analytical method development and validation for estimation of Sacubitril and Valsartan in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form using RP-HPLCDownload Article

    Farheen Begum, S.H. Rizwan

    Abstract

    close

    A new simple, rapid, specific, accurate and precise stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for the estimation of Sacubitril and Valsartan in bulk & pharmaceutical dosage form. From UV spectrophotometric method selected wavelength for estimation of drugs were 241 nm as isobestic point and 230 nm, 228 nm as λ max of SAC and VAL respectively by using methanol as a solvent. RP-HPLC method was developed by using Inertsil ODS (250×4.6mm) 5µ. The samples were analyzed by using mixed phosphate buffer (PH adjusted to 3 using orthophosphoric acid): Methanol: Acetonitrile (30:50:20 % v/v) as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and detection wavelength is 241 nm. Both the drugs were eluted within 5 minutes and gave sharp peaks with high theoretical plate count and low tailing factor. The retention time for Sacubitril and Valsartan was found to be 2.927min and 4.003 min respectively. Calibration curve was linear with correlation coefficient of 0.997 and 0.997 over a concentration range of 58.8-137.2 µg/ml and 61.2-142 µg/ml for Sacubitril and Valsartan respectively. The percent recovery was 99.60and 98.08for Sacubitril and Valsartan respectively indicating accuracy and reliability of the method. Forced degradation studies were carried out and drug peaks were well resolved without any significant degradation products when subjected to stress conditions. So the developed stability indicating method could be utilized for routine analysis of Sacubitril andValsartan in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

  10. Formulation and evaluation of porous tablets of Ramipril HydrochlorideDownload Article

    Salwa Raheem, Pamu Sandhya, M. Sunitha

    Abstract

    close

    Ramipril, sold under the brand name Altace among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and congestive heart failure. By inhibiting an enzyme, ACE inhibitors relax the muscles around small arteries (arterioles). The arterioles expand and allow blood to flow through more easily. This reduces blood pressure. ACE inhibitors inhibit the actions of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), thereby lowering the production of angiotensin II and decreasing the breakdown of bradykinin. The decrease in angiotensin II results in relaxation of arteriole smooth muscle leading to a decrease in total peripheral resistance, reducing blood pressure as the blood is pumped through widened vessels. Its effect on bradykinin is responsible for the dry cough side effect. Ramipril, a prodrug or precursor drug is converted to the active metabolite ramiprilat by carboxyl esterase 1. Ramiprilat is mostly excreted by the kidneys. Its half-life is variable (3–16 hours), and is prolonged by heart and liver failure, as well as kidney failure.