International Journal of Farmacia International Journal of Farmacia

ISSN: 2455-8109

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  1. The Left atrial appendage closure - A watchman deviceDownload Article

    Ramoju Kishore Kumar, N Sri ram, Velpula Upender, Abdurraouf M.M. Khalf

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    The Watchman is a latest innovative device which is used for Afib as the best alternative than OAC'S because OAC'S can cause severe adverse effects. In Afib, we do observe irregular heartbeats and formations of the clots leads to stroke. Generally, the heart has a left atrial appendage (LAA) which is a small ear like a sac. In Afib condition, improper impulse arise and spread along the atria, this improper impulse does not give time to contract the atria properly so that blood from atria cannot move properly into the ventricles and in LAA it is believed to the formation of thromboembolism. In order to prevent this, OAC drugs are given as a clot formation prevention therapy, which may not be effective in all the conditions and chance of recurrence is more so as an alternative recently in 2015 FDA has approved watchman device to prevent the recurrence of stroke in predicting patients. This device blocks the LAA sac and prevents the formation of thromboembolism.

  2. Formulation and In Vitro characterization of transdermal patches of EtodolacDownload Article

    Shamshad Begum, N. Sri Ram, P. Sandhya

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    1. Formulation of Etodolac patches using different polymers like HPMC, EC alone and their combinations.
    2. Characterization of patches.
    3. In-vitro evaluation of patches for the release kinetics and related characteristic’s

    Methods

    In these study Etodolac transdermal patches was prepared by solvent casting method using polymer  HPMC E5 and DMSO, used as a penetration enhancer. The prepared patches were evaluated for thickness, folding endurance, tensile strength, flatness, drug content uniformity, in-vitro permeation studies, kinetic study and calibrated using FT-IR. In vitro release study was performed by using Franz-diffusion cell.

    Results

    Among all prepared batches of TDD’S, batch F7containing HPMC E5 and EC (5:5) showed maximum rate of drug release of 87.825 ± 0.264 within 24 hr.

    Conclusion

    Etodolac transdermal delivery patches can be successfully formulated by using various ratios of EC and HPMC E5 alone and in combination. The appearances of the patches were transparent without air bubbles

  3. An overview on Gastroretentive drug delivery systemsDownload Article

    Pavani V

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    Administration of drugs through oral route is the most preferable route of drug delivery as it is simple, easy to administer and have greater patient compliance. But its advantages have become limited in case of drugs with low absorption window. There has been considerable research over the past few years on the possibility of controlled and site specific delivery to the GIT by controlling the gastrointestinal transit of orally administered dosage forms using gastroretentive drug delivery system (GRDDS). A wide range of dosage forms have been developed for the drugs which have narrow absorption window, stability and solubility issues at GI pH, and having stomach as a site of action. The present review briefly describe the gastro retentive drug delivery (GRDD), various approaches for GRDDS, factors controlling gastric retention, merits, demerits and applications of gastroretentive drug delivery systems.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol using pulsincap technologyDownload Article

    Ch. Vijayalaxmi, Sirisha

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    The purpose of this research was to design and evaluate an oral pulsatile colon specific to achieve time and or site specific release of tramadol based on chronopharmaceutical approach tramadol a centrally acting analgesic and synthetic analog of codeine, it has asignificantly lower affinity for opiod receptors than codeine .indicated in the treatment of moderate to severe pain tramadol is used to treat postoperative dental ,cancer and as an adjuvant to nsiad therapy in patients with osteoarthritis. Tramadol was prepared by using pulisin cap technology with different polymervariation .and formulation parameter were optimized .all the formulation were evaluated for flow properties and in vitro drug release was carried out in ph 7.2 buffer using USPXXIV dissolution rate test apparatus at 100 rpm 370 C ± 50 C capsule are subjected to formaldehyde treatment. It is concluded these pulsincaps are the potential system for oral pulstaile colon specific for treatment of osteoarthritis.

  5. Design, development and evaluation of Itraconazole loaded transfersomal gelDownload Article

    Sarita Krishan Chand, Sunil Kumar

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    The main objective of the present study was to enhance a transdermal penetration of a water-insoluble anti-fungal drug, Itraconazole, by encapsulating it into a transfersomal gel. The transfersomal gel of itraconazole was prepared firstly by preparing transfersomes by modified hand shaking method using surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 80), Lecithin in various concentrations and chloroform and methanol added in 3:1 ratio in each formulation and evaluated for their vesicle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, % drug content and %entrapment efficiency and in vitro permeation studies. Later carbopol gels such as carbopol 940 along with distilled water was used in the aqueous dispersion of transfersomes to prepare topical transfersomal gel. The characterization was carried out and in vitro permeation studies carried out. The results were obtained which showed that transfersomal gel was a promising candidate for transdermal delivery with targeted and prolonged release of a drug. It also enhances skin permeation of many drugs.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of rapimelts of EletriptanDownload Article

    Syeda Ayesha Sana, N. Sri Ram, P. Sandhya

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    Eletriptan is a second generation triptan drug intended for treatment of migraine headaches. The prepared tablets were shown good compression parameters and they passed all the quality control evaluation parameters as per IP limits. All the formulations were prepared by direct compression method using 8mm punch on 8 station rotary tablet punching machine. The blend of all formulations showed good flow properties such as angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density. Twelve formulations F1-F12 were formulated and evaluated for various quality control parameters. All the formulations were passed the tests and the results were within limits. From the dissolution data it was evident that formulation F3 was found to be best formulation with maximum % drug release of 99.9 % in 6 minutes. Disintegration time of F3 was found to be 16.33 seconds.

  7. Formulation and In vitro evaluation of Fosinopril fast dissolving tabletsDownload Article

    Shagani Raju, Santhosh kumar kasula

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    The concept of formulating fast dissolving tablets using super disintegrants offers a suitable and practical approach of faster disintegration and dissolution characteristics. The formulations F1 to F9 Were prepared. Among the various method of preparation fast dissolving tablets were prepared by using super disintegrants like CCS, CP and SSG by direct compression. The formulations F1 to F3 are prepared with 10% concentration of CCS, CP and SSG. The formulations F4 to F6 are prepared with 15% concentration of CCS, CP and SSG. The formulations F7 to F9 are prepared with 20% concentration of CCS, CP and SSG.  The prepared tablets of fosinopril were evaluated for precompression parameters like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index and postcompression parameters like the hardness, friability and weight variation, drug content, disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution studies. Among the various fast dissolving tablets of fosinopril F7 formulation shows maximum drug release in 30min.

  8. Stability indicating analytical method development and Validation for Isoniazide, Thiacetazone and Pyridoxine by RP-HPLC UV methodDownload Article

    Amena shafia rasheed

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    A simple, rapid and precise liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of isoniazid thiacetazone and pyridoxine, in a tablet dosage form has been developed. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a HYPERSIL ODS column (C18) column (150*4.6 mm) of 5µ particle size, applying isocratic elution with a mobile phase. A mixture of 40 volumes of Ammonium Formate Buffer: 60 volumes of Acetonitrile were prepared. The mobile phase was sonicated for 10min to remove gases Wave length: 254nm Injection volume:20µl Column temperature: 25o C. UV detection was performed at 254 nm. The total run time was 8 min. Retention times for isoniazid thiacetazone and pyridoxine are 2.7428, 3.6267, 8.217 mins, respectively. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity in accordance with ICH guidelines. The percent recovery for Isoniazide is 99.99%, Thiacetazone 99.14% and Pyridoxine 99.4%. The linearity was determined at five levels over the range of 50%-150% of standard concentration in diluents. The concentration range at which linearity was established is 200-600 g/ml for Isoniazide Thiacetazone 100-300 and Pyridoxine 2-6g/ml. The coefficient of correlation (R2 = 0.998) for Isoniazide, and Thiacetazone for (R2 = 0.997) and (R2= 0.996) for Pyridoxine. The plate count was found to be more than 2000, tailing for the same peak is not more than 2.0 and % RSD is not more than 2.0%. High recovery and low coefficients of variance confirmed the suitability of the method for the simultaneous analysis of the three considered drugs. Isoniazide, Thiacetazone and Pyridoxine was subjected to various stress conditions like hydrolytic degradation, thermal degradation, Peroxide degradation, photolytic degradation.  The developed method was found to be stable in all the conditions. The developed method is stability indicating and can be used or routine analysis of Isoniazide, Thiacetazone and Pyridoxine free of interference from their degradation products in suspension formulation.

  9. Development and Evaluation of gastroretentive matrix tablets of NateglinideDownload Article

    Safia Begum, P. Sandhya, M.Sunitha

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     Nateglinide is used in the treatment of generalized non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Once inside the cell, glucose is metabolized to produce ATP. High concentrations of ATP inhibit ATP-sensitive potassium channels causing membrane depolarization. When extracellular glucose concentrations are low, it causes repolarization. The influx of calcium ions stimulates calcium-dependent exocytosis of insulin granules. Nateglinide increases insulin release by inhibiting ATP-sensitive potassium channels in a glucose-dependent manner. The F4 formulation diffusion exponent n value is in between 1.07 to1.99. F4 gave better-controlled drug release and floating properties in comparison to the other formulations. The release pattern of the F4 formulations was best fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, Higuchi and first-order model. The most probable mechanism for the drug release pattern from the   formulation was non-Fickian diffusion or anomalous   diffusion.  

  10. Formulation and evaluation of ciclopirox using ethosomal gelDownload Article

    M. Swetha, P. Vishnu

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    The present study focuses on the formulation of ethosomal gel of ciclopirox, an anti-fungal agent, for delivery as a carrier for transdermal application. The ethosomes were prepared using different concentrations of phospholipids (2-4 % w/v), ethanol (20-50 % w/v). They were formulated into 12 different formulations with different concentrations of phospholipids and ethanol. The drug release profile exhibited Higuchi's and zero order kinetics. The optimized formulation was found to be EF7 containing 40 % w/v ethanol and 3% w/v lecithin. The optimized formulation was evaluated for particle characteristics and zeta potential. Ethosomal gel was prepared by incorporation of optimized ethosomal suspension into gel base. The ethosomal gel was characterized for physical appearance, pH, content uniformity, rheological behaviour, skin-retention, in-vitro drug release and stability. From the results it can fairly be concluded that ethosomes are capable of delivering ciclopirox into systemic circulation by transdermal route.

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