International Journal of Farmacia International Journal of Farmacia

ISSN: 2455-8109

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  1. Preparation and evaluation of muchoadhesive microspheres of efavirenze for enhancing its dissolution and bioavailabilityDownload Article

    Ch.Kishore N.Sriram, E .Venkateshwarlu, A.Anil Kumar, Nagarajan. E.

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    Microspheres can be tailored to provide targeted and/or sustained release in different parts of the body, including those of eye, nasal cavity, urinary, colon and gastrointestinal tract, thus offering the possibilities of localized as well as systemic controlled release of drugs. Prolonged release of drugs and a reduction in frequency of drug administration can highly improve the patient compliance. Efavirenz, a widely prescribed HIV-1 specific, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drug belongs to Class II under BCS and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor solubility. As such it needs enhancement in dissolution rate and bioavailability to derive its maximum therapeutic efficacy. A novel promising technology for enhancing the bioavailability is a combination of mucoadhesion principle and microsphere technology to result in mucoadhesive microspheres. Mucoadhesion refers to attachment of polymers  to  the  mucin  layer  of  a  mucosal  tissue  by  means  of  interfacial  forces.  Several polymers such as HPMC, Carbopol, sodium CMC and polymethacrylic acid exhibit [1] mucoadhesive property. Mucoadhesive microspheres (1-1000 µm in size) consist of either entirely of a mucoadhesive polymer or having an outer coating of it enclosing the drug particles [2].

  2. Carnilitye capsule; Enhances body's ability to convert fat into energyDownload Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, NehaGiri, D.Sruthi Rao, G.Santosh, C.J. Sampath Kumar

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    L-Carnitine is a vitamin-like nutrient essential for energy production and fat metabolism. It is used by athletes as an ergogenic aid. Supplementing diet with L-Carnitine increases maximal aerobic power, and promotes glycogen sparing in the course of prolonged exercise. Supplementation of L-Carnitine raises the performance of submaximal exercise and resistance to fatigue. L-Carnitine acts as a carrier in fatty acid transport and its supplementation increases the utilisation of free fatty acids for energy production in endurance trained athletes. Since, L-Carnitine involves in energy production and utilisation, it can be considered an ergogenic aid for athletes.

    L-Carnitine supplementation may protect endurance athlete carbohydrate stores, which are at risk during periods of increased exercise. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of L-carnitine in energy production and utilization, performance of submaximal exercise and resistance to fatigue and for energy production in endurance.

  3. Stability indicating method and validation for the simultaneous estimation of metformin and empagliflozin by using RP-HPLC in a bulk and pharmaceutical dosage formsDownload Article

    V. Rajani, P. Venkata Ramadevi and P. Parthiban

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    A simple and selective LC method is described for the determination of Metformin and empagliflozin in tablet dosage forms. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using mobile phase consisting of a mixture of 50 volumes of methanol and 50 volumes of phosphate buffer with detection of 255 nm. Linearity was observed in the range 60-140 µg /mL for Metformin (R2 =0.999) and 3-7µg /mL for empagliflozin (R2 =0.999) for the amount of drugs estimated by the proposed methods was in good agreement with the label claim. The proposed methods were validated. The accuracy of the methods was assessed by recovery studies at three different levels. Recovery experiments indicated the absence of interference from commonly encountered pharmaceutical additives. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing %RSD less than 2. All statistical data proves validity of the methods and can be used for routine analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of new benzotriazole derivatives for possible CNS activityDownload Article

    P. Swarnalatha, L. Srikanth, G. Sridhar Babu, J. Venkateshwar Rao, P. S. Malathy, B.Srinivas

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    In view of the biological prominence of benzotriazole derivatives, it is planned to synthesize new benzotriazole derivatives. So, some new 2-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)-N'-(2-substituted benzylidene) acetohydrazides (Va-Vg)  have been synthesized as depicted in scheme-I. The intermediates and final compounds were purified and their chemical structures have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, Mass and by elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their CNS activity (Gross behavioral studies and loco motor activity). Among the compounds tested, compound Vb with 4-Chloro substitution on the phenyl ring showed more promising depressant activity among all the test compounds followed by Vg and Ve.

  5. Protective effect of alcoholic fruit extract of mallotus philippensis muell.Arg in aniline induced spleen toxicity in ratsDownload Article

    G.Sumithira, V.Kavya, Emil Mariya Shaji, V. Safrooq, V. Sakthivel, P. Sangeetha Mol, T. Shyamjith

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    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Mallotus philippensis on aniline induced spleen toxicity in rats. Wister albino rats of either sex were used and divided into 5 different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 30 days. Control group received 1% carboxy methyl cellulose orally as vehicle. Treatment groups (III, IV &V) received ascorbic acid (40mg/kg b.w p.o), EEMP (200mg/kg b.w p.o) and EEMP (400 mg/kg b.w p.o) respectively followed by aniline hydrochloride for 30 days. At the end of treatment period haematological parameters and tissue parameters were evaluated. Aniline hydrochloride treated rats showed significant alteration in Body weight and spleen weight, Haematological parameters (Hb, RBC&WBC) and tissue parameters (LPO, GSH &NO) compared to control group. Treatment of EEMP (200mg/kg) and EEMP (400mg/kg) respectively showed a significant recovery in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity.

  6. Nutrease powder - nature’s blend of nutrients to maintain optimum health and prevent diseases in adultsDownload Article

    GovindShukla, NagalakshmiYaparthy, NehaGiri, C.J. Sampath Kumar

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    An adult individual needs to balance energy intake with his or her level of physical activity to avoid storing excess body fat. Dietary practices and food choices are related to wellness and affect health, fitness, weight management, and the prevention of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer , and diabetes . The science of nutrition is dedicated to learning about foods that the human body requires at different stages of life in order to meet the nutritional needs for proper growth, as well as to maintain health and prevent disease. A baby is born with a very high requirement for energy and nutrient intake per unit of body weight to provide for rapid growth. The rate of growth is the highest during the first year and declines slowly after the age of two, with a corresponding decrease in nutrient and energy requirements. During puberty, however, nutritional requirements increase sharply until this period of fast growth is completed. Adulthood begins at about the age of fourteen or fifteen for girls, and eighteen or nineteen for boys.

    This review summaries the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of NUTREASE POWDER, The Nature’s blend of protein, Fibers, plant extracts (phytochemicals) as balanced Nutrition for Adults.