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Hypothyroidism, a reduction in thyroid hormone levels, is one of the most common diseases worldwide. The medication most used to treat hypothyroidism is levothyroxine, a compound that acts as a replacement for a person’s thyroid hormone. People with hypothyroidism will often need to take levothyroxine for a long time, typically for the rest of their life, so it is important that their treatment is monitored closely and the dose is adjusted for the best effect as needed. As a person progresses through life, their dose may need to be adjusted because other diseases or medications can affect the dose needed for effective treatment. Pregnancy or weight gain can also affect the dose of levothyroxine needed by the patient, so patients and physicians need to work in partnership to ensure that the treatment is working as well as it can. The goal of this partnership is to maintain normal thyroid hormone levels without the patient experiencing any side effects or negative health consequences of taking too much or too little levothyroxine.